主动: The candidate believes that Congress must place a ceiling on the budget.

被动: It is believed by the candidate that a ceiling must be placed on the budget by Congress.

注意:如果句子的主语是匿名的,尝试选一个一般的术语,比如 “researchers,”“the study,”“experts in this field.”


  • 强调某一个行为而不是执行者

After long debate, the proposal was endorsed by the long-range planning committee.

  • 为了使文章的主语和焦点保持一致

The data processing department recently presented what proved to be a controversial proposal to expand its staff. After long debate, the proposal was endorsed by. . . .

  • 不想指出作者姓名

The procedures were somehow misinterpreted.

  • 描述一个场景,实施者未知或不重要

Every year, thousands of people are diagnosed as having cancer.

  • 建立权威的语气

Visitors are not allowed after 9:00 p.m.


好的:The committee has to approach it differently.

坏的:The establishment of a different approach on the part of the committee has become a necessity.


名词化:An evaluation of the procedures needs to be done.

修改:We need to evaluate the procedures.

名词化:The procedures need to be evaluated.

修改:We need to evaluate the procedures.

名词化:The stability and quality of our financial performance will be developed through the profitable execution of our existing business, as well as the acquisition or development of new businesses.

修改:We will improve our financial performance not only by executing our existing business more profitably but by acquiring or developing new businesses.


冗余:In a situation in which a class is overenrolled, you may request that the instructor force-add you.

简洁:When a class is overenrolled, you may ask the instructor to force-add you.

冗余:I will now make a few observations concerning the matter of contingency funds.

简洁:I will now make a few observations about contingency funds.

冗余:There is a need for more careful inspection of all welds.

简洁:You must inspect all welds more carefully. / Inspect all welds more carefully.


  • because, since, why 来替代 

the reason for 

for the reason that 

due to the fact that 

owing to the fact that

in light of the fact that

considering the fact that

on the grounds that

this is why

  • although, even, though 来替代

despite the fact that

regardless of the fact that 

notwithstanding the fact that

  • if 来替代

in the event that

if it should transpire/happen that

under circumstances in which

  • when 来替代

on the occasion of

in a situation in which

under circumstances in which

  • about 来替代

as regards

in reference to

with regard to

concerning the matter of

where . . . is concerned

  • must, should 来替代

it is crucial that

it is necessary that

there is a need/necessity for

it is important that

it is incumbent upon

cannot be avoided

  • can 来替代

is able to

has the opportunity to

is in a position to

has the capacity for

has the ability to

  • may, might, can, could 来替代  

it is possible that

there is a chance that

it could happen that

the possibility exists for

  • before, after, as 来替代

prior to

In anticipation of

subsequent to

following on

at the same time as

simultaneously with



  • knows 来替代 is aware, has knowledge of
  • takes 来替代 is taking
  • suggests 来替代 are suggestive
  • indicate 来替代 are indications



不必要的介词短语:The opinion of the manager

修改:The manager's opinion

不必要的介词短语:The obvious effect of such a range of reference is to assure the audience of the author's range of learning and intellect.

修改:The wide-ranging references in this talk assure the audience that the author is intelligent and well-read.

不必要的介词短语:It is a matter of the gravest possible importance to the health of anyone with a history of a problem with disease of the heart that he or she should avoid the sort of foods with a high percentage of saturated fats.

修改:Anyone with a history of heart disease should avoid saturated fats.


常见的虚字结构比如 it is,there is,there are


虚字结构:It was her last argument that finally persuaded me.

修改:Her last argument finally persuaded me.

虚字结构:There are likely to be many researchers raising questions about this methodological approach.

修改:Many researchers are likely to raise questions about this methodological approach.

虚字结构:It is inevitable that oil prices will rise.

修改:Oil prices will inevitably rise.



(1)Factor (2)aspect (3)area (4)situation (5)consideration (6)degree (7)case

模糊名词:Consumer demand is rising in the area of services.

精确:Consumers are demanding more services.

模糊名词:Strong reading skills are an important factor in students' success in college.

精确:Students' success in college depends on their reading skills.

模糊名词:Photography took on new aspects during the Civil War.

精确:The Civil War saw the advent of graphic battlefield photography.



生僻:cognizant of               简单:aware of, knows

生僻:facilitate                     简单:help

生僻:impact on                   简单:affect

生僻:implement                  简单:start, create, carry out, begin

生僻:subsequent to            简单:after

生僻:utilize                          简单:use



名词串:MHS has a hospital employee relations improvement program.

修改:MHS has a program to improve relations among employees.

名词串:NASA continues to work on the International Space Station astronaut living-quarters module development project.

修改:NASA is still developing the module that will provide living quarters for the astronauts aboard the International Space Station.

内容来源:《How to write and submit an academic paper in 18 weeks》 Steve Wallac




举例:Smith et al. investigated the relationship



举例:The relationship was investigated by Smith et al.


垂悬修饰语:To investigate the source of nutrients, eggshell membranes were compared

修改:To investigate the source of nutrients, the study compared eggshell membranes

垂悬修饰语:After analyzing the samples, the plants were measured daily

修改:After analyzing the samples, the research measured the plants daily






<1>Up to 90% of the energy in light bulbs is wasted in the form of heat


<2>The first edition of Tom's earliest writings on dreams was published in 1899


<3>Drosophila melanogaster has been one of the most extensively studied species in genetics research



当在方法部分讨论实验步骤时,通常使用被动语态,因为读者会假设作者就是该实验的实施者,而这通常也是事实,用主动语态并不会使得句子更加明白,而且会转移焦点,同时使用主动语态意味着要使用大量的 “we”,会使得句子不连贯。



举例:We wish to suggest a structure for the salt and deoxyribose nucleic acid. This structure has novel features which are of considerable biological interest. A structure for nucleic acid has already been proposed by Paling and Corey.


(1)因为... 所以 ...

(2)虽然... 但是 ...


(1)Because I am curious about the Golden Age of Mexican cinema, so I listen to Pedro Infante's music.

(2)Although I listen to Bollywood music, but I do not understand Hindi.


(1.1)Because I am curious about the Golden Age of Mexican cinema, I listen to Pedro Infante's music.

(2.1)Although I listen to Bollywood music, I do not understand Hindi.


(1.2)I am curious about the Golden Age of Mexican cinema, so I listen to Pedro Infante's music.

(2.2)I listen to Bollywood music, but I do not understand Hindi.



所有完整的比较语句都包含主语,动词,比较修饰语,连接词 “than”(或其他表明比较的短语)和从句(可选)

错误:The finance department focuses on profits more than the X department.

修改:The finance department focuses on profits more than the X department does.

错误:Country A funds high-tech innovation more than country B

修改:Country A funds high-tech innovation more than country B does

错误:The device formulated in this experiment exhibits higher luminance.

修改:The device formulated in this experiment exhibits higher luminance than conventional models do.

错误:Girls scores were higher than boys

修改:Girls scores were higher than those of boys


学术作者喜欢动词,因为名词笨重,并且不表达行为,而动词可以展示发生了什么。当把动词转化为名词的时候,必须加入一些无意义的动词来使得句子完整,如 undertaken, occurred, achieved, made, done 等

原始:Enumeration of three reasons why the English language has become so important was made by Thompson.

修改:Thompson enumerated three reasons why the English language has become so important.

原始:Discussion of the challenges and strategies for facilitation and promotion of ERP was performed by Smith.

修改:Smith discussed the challenges and strategies for facilitating and promoting ERP.

原始:Criticism of the new policies has also been made by non-government agencies.

修改:Non-government agencies have also been critical of the new policies.

在学术写作中使用 “大词”

许多作者使用 “大词” 在他们的文章中,因为他们认为这可以使得他们的写作看起来更学术化,然而,通常会发现这样的句子冗长,紊乱,不易理解。因为这些 “大词” 通常是对动词和形容词的名词化

原始:Anobligation is placed by the law on the citizens of the country for the correct performance of the administration of their income records.

修改:The law obliges the citizens of the country to administer their income records correctly.

原始:The avoidance of the introduction or the removal of toxins from rivers by industry leads to the improvement of the integrity of the environment and is beneficial to human health.

修改:Industries that avoid introducing or that remove toxins from rivers improve the integrity of the environment and benefit human health.


(1)寻找名词化前面的词,比如 “the”

(2)寻找弱的动词,比如 “to be”

原始:The participants who are giving assistance with the formulation of policy ideas are in agreement with the researcher to offer their view.

修改:Those who assist with formulation policy ideas agree with the researcher to offer their views.

(3)寻找以 “-ization” 或者 “-tion” 结尾的名词


技术文章作者通常更喜欢强动词,强动词就是用一个单词来表示行动,如 compare, consider, indicate。弱动词需要更多的词来表示一个行动,如 make a comparison, give consideration to, give indication of

  原始:Smith asks the questions as to whether conventional methods offer the best environment for execution.

修改:Smith questions whether conventional methods offer the best environment for execution.

原始:Smith makes use of examples of these various techniques to prove that innovation continues.

修改:Smith uses examples of these various techniques to prove that innovation continues.

“Argue”“Indicate”“Demonstrate” 的区分

很多作者在写论文的时候,把 indicate 和 demonstrate 作为 argue 的同义词替换,这是有问题的,他们不是完全等价的。

当涉及到之前的研究中的观点,使用 argue

而 indicate 和 demonstrate 通常用来描述事实或者已经被证明无可争议

argue 还可以用来避免听起来对结果犹豫不定。比如 “may indicate”“may suggest”“may demonstrate” 都可以被 argue 加强

原始:The results may indicate that climatic change caused the extinction of the dinosaurs.

修改:We argue that climatic change caused the extinction of the dinosaurs.

避免以 “It” 和“There”开始句子

不要在每句话开头都用 “It” 和“There”。在科技论文的写作中,最好是把主语放在开头的位置,而不是放在 “it” 形成的从句中间,这样能使得文章更易读。避免使用这种以 “It” 和“There”开始的句子,比如

(1)It is known that ... (2)It is considered that ... (3)It demonstrates that ... (4)It could be said that ... (5)It follows that ...

原始:It is possible that participants between the ages of 18 and 19 responded differently than those between the ages of 20 and 21.

修改:Participants between the ages of 18 and 19 may have responded differently than participants between the ages of 20 and 21.

原始:There is a need for implementation of the policy on a large scale by the president of the association.

修改:The association president must implement the policy on a larger scale.

原始:It could happen that a decision to modify the model is made by the researcher.

修改:The research may decide to modify the model.

原始:There is a necessity for a semi-structured approach to be chosen.

修改:A semi-structured approach must be chosen.

原始:It was vital that quantitative measures would usefully supplement and extend the qualitative analysis.

修改:Quantitative measures must usefully supplement and extend the qualitative analysis.

原始:It is necessary that the best method to adopt for this investigation is determined by the committee.

修改:The committee must decide the best method to adopt for this investigation.


在写作的时候,我们经常用类似 “show”“deal with” 这种万能词,但是在一篇文章中,这样的词使用的越多,就越没有意义。如果你能选择一个意义更明确的词表示,也就是主动动词,就不要用这种万能动词。比如将 “Chen dealt with” 和“Figure 1 shows”表达成 “Chen hypothesized” 和“Figure 1 represents”意义变得更加明确


  1. 当你准备文献综述的时候,需要用简要,明确的术语来描述其他人的研究时

Phillip Chang proposes a mechanism explaining increased silica solubility in the presence of two small organic acids.

  1. 当你解释你自己的实验研究,需要解释观察到的趋势时

The results of this study challenge findings from studies about analytic concentration varying with sample location.

  1. 当你进行客观陈述,需要预测信息的时候

This study characterizes wetlands by their water chemistry and postulates that water chemistry varies with water source and wetland type.

  1. 当你涉及到某幅图,表或公式,需要定义该图,表或公式的目的

Figure 4 depicts grain growth that occurred after the ceramic was sintered for three hours.



yield    illustrate    illuminate    reveal    employ    mean     suggest     clarity    indicate   represent    prove    insist    propose     imply      assert    postulate    consider   infer   state extrapolate    estimate   define   classify   invoke   analyze    compare    hypothesize   synthesize   summarize   disagree   generalize  narrate   evaluate    simplify   measure   note   predict    introduce    report    construe   challenge   delineate  depict   interpret    provide   acknowledge   distinguish   inform   specify   restrict   determine   detail   sum up   designate point out    set forth     deduce    derive   characterize    guide    maintain   believe   speculate   present    organize    investigate   assess     determine    calculate    support    devise    construct      evaluate     attribute    obtain    assume    argue    reiterate    discover   decide


discharge    overlie    emanate    radiate    scatter    exchange    separate    surround    combine    eliminate    emit    transmit    carry    bombard    exert    exude    interact    behave    exchange    absorb     converge    extend    constrain    force    elongate    contract    trend    plunge    occur    fracture    continue    mix    slow    quicken    produce    bond    interlock    fuse    deteriorate    migrate    encompass    access    traverse    join    dominate    deposit    underline    overlap    originate    isolate    invade    permeate    evolve    divide    sinter    reclaim    restore    abandon    contain    accrue    precede    influence    saturate    circulate    forecast    orient    distribute    allow    lag    terminate    activate    cease    record    form    transect    condense    enrich    invert    convert    alter    link    superimpose    rotate    rupture    streamline    appear    require    ascend    descend    collapse    superpose    crystallize    bisect    cede    coalesce    disperse    disseminate    disintegrate    propel    repel    accelerate    transfer    penetrate    halt    curb


最后修改:2022 年 07 月 31 日