主动: The candidate believes that Congress must place a ceiling on the budget.
被动: It is believed by the candidate that a ceiling must be placed on the budget by Congress.
注意：如果句子的主语是匿名的，尝试选一个一般的术语，比如 “researchers,”“the study,”“experts in this field.”
After long debate, the proposal was endorsed by the long-range planning committee.
The data processing department recently presented what proved to be a controversial proposal to expand its staff. After long debate, the proposal was endorsed by. . . .
The procedures were somehow misinterpreted.
Every year, thousands of people are diagnosed as having cancer.
Visitors are not allowed after 9:00 p.m.
好的：The committee has to approach it differently.
坏的：The establishment of a different approach on the part of the committee has become a necessity.
名词化：An evaluation of the procedures needs to be done.
修改：We need to evaluate the procedures.
名词化：The procedures need to be evaluated.
修改：We need to evaluate the procedures.
名词化：The stability and quality of our financial performance will be developed through the profitable execution of our existing business, as well as the acquisition or development of new businesses.
修改：We will improve our financial performance not only by executing our existing business more profitably but by acquiring or developing new businesses.
冗余：In a situation in which a class is overenrolled, you may request that the instructor force-add you.
简洁：When a class is overenrolled, you may ask the instructor to force-add you.
冗余：I will now make a few observations concerning the matter of contingency funds.
简洁：I will now make a few observations about contingency funds.
冗余：There is a need for more careful inspection of all welds.
简洁：You must inspect all welds more carefully. / Inspect all welds more carefully.
- because, since, why 来替代
the reason for
for the reason that
due to the fact that
owing to the fact that
in light of the fact that
considering the fact that
on the grounds that
this is why
- although, even, though 来替代
despite the fact that
regardless of the fact that
notwithstanding the fact that
- if 来替代
in the event that
if it should transpire/happen that
under circumstances in which
- when 来替代
on the occasion of
in a situation in which
under circumstances in which
- about 来替代
in reference to
with regard to
concerning the matter of
where . . . is concerned
- must, should 来替代
it is crucial that
it is necessary that
there is a need/necessity for
it is important that
it is incumbent upon
cannot be avoided
- can 来替代
is able to
has the opportunity to
is in a position to
has the capacity for
has the ability to
- may, might, can, could 来替代
it is possible that
there is a chance that
it could happen that
the possibility exists for
- before, after, as 来替代
In anticipation of
at the same time as
- knows 来替代 is aware, has knowledge of
- takes 来替代 is taking
- suggests 来替代 are suggestive
- indicate 来替代 are indications
不必要的介词短语：The opinion of the manager
修改：The manager's opinion
不必要的介词短语：The obvious effect of such a range of reference is to assure the audience of the author's range of learning and intellect.
修改：The wide-ranging references in this talk assure the audience that the author is intelligent and well-read.
不必要的介词短语：It is a matter of the gravest possible importance to the health of anyone with a history of a problem with disease of the heart that he or she should avoid the sort of foods with a high percentage of saturated fats.
修改：Anyone with a history of heart disease should avoid saturated fats.
常见的虚字结构比如 it is，there is，there are
虚字结构：It was her last argument that finally persuaded me.
修改：Her last argument finally persuaded me.
虚字结构：There are likely to be many researchers raising questions about this methodological approach.
修改：Many researchers are likely to raise questions about this methodological approach.
虚字结构：It is inevitable that oil prices will rise.
修改：Oil prices will inevitably rise.
（1）Factor （2）aspect （3）area （4）situation （5）consideration （6）degree （7）case
模糊名词：Consumer demand is rising in the area of services.
精确：Consumers are demanding more services.
模糊名词：Strong reading skills are an important factor in students' success in college.
精确：Students' success in college depends on their reading skills.
模糊名词：Photography took on new aspects during the Civil War.
精确：The Civil War saw the advent of graphic battlefield photography.
生僻：cognizant of 简单：aware of, knows
生僻：impact on 简单：affect
生僻：implement 简单：start, create, carry out, begin
生僻：subsequent to 简单：after
名词串：MHS has a hospital employee relations improvement program.
修改：MHS has a program to improve relations among employees.
名词串：NASA continues to work on the International Space Station astronaut living-quarters module development project.
修改：NASA is still developing the module that will provide living quarters for the astronauts aboard the International Space Station.
内容来源：《How to write and submit an academic paper in 18 weeks》 Steve Wallac
举例：Smith et al. investigated the relationship
举例：The relationship was investigated by Smith et al.
垂悬修饰语：To investigate the source of nutrients, eggshell membranes were compared
修改：To investigate the source of nutrients, the study compared eggshell membranes
垂悬修饰语：After analyzing the samples, the plants were measured daily
修改：After analyzing the samples, the research measured the plants daily
<1>Up to 90% of the energy in light bulbs is wasted in the form of heat
<2>The first edition of Tom's earliest writings on dreams was published in 1899
<3>Drosophila melanogaster has been one of the most extensively studied species in genetics research
举例：We wish to suggest a structure for the salt and deoxyribose nucleic acid. This structure has novel features which are of considerable biological interest. A structure for nucleic acid has already been proposed by Paling and Corey.
（1）因为... 所以 ...
（2）虽然... 但是 ...
（1）Because I am curious about the Golden Age of Mexican cinema, so I listen to Pedro Infante's music.
（2）Although I listen to Bollywood music, but I do not understand Hindi.
（1.1）Because I am curious about the Golden Age of Mexican cinema, I listen to Pedro Infante's music.
（2.1）Although I listen to Bollywood music, I do not understand Hindi.
（1.2）I am curious about the Golden Age of Mexican cinema, so I listen to Pedro Infante's music.
（2.2）I listen to Bollywood music, but I do not understand Hindi.
错误：The finance department focuses on profits more than the X department.
修改：The finance department focuses on profits more than the X department does.
错误：Country A funds high-tech innovation more than country B
修改：Country A funds high-tech innovation more than country B does
错误：The device formulated in this experiment exhibits higher luminance.
修改：The device formulated in this experiment exhibits higher luminance than conventional models do.
错误：Girls scores were higher than boys
修改：Girls scores were higher than those of boys
学术作者喜欢动词，因为名词笨重，并且不表达行为，而动词可以展示发生了什么。当把动词转化为名词的时候，必须加入一些无意义的动词来使得句子完整，如 undertaken, occurred, achieved, made, done 等
原始：Enumeration of three reasons why the English language has become so important was made by Thompson.
修改：Thompson enumerated three reasons why the English language has become so important.
原始：Discussion of the challenges and strategies for facilitation and promotion of ERP was performed by Smith.
修改：Smith discussed the challenges and strategies for facilitating and promoting ERP.
原始：Criticism of the new policies has also been made by non-government agencies.
修改：Non-government agencies have also been critical of the new policies.
许多作者使用 “大词” 在他们的文章中，因为他们认为这可以使得他们的写作看起来更学术化，然而，通常会发现这样的句子冗长，紊乱，不易理解。因为这些 “大词” 通常是对动词和形容词的名词化
原始：Anobligation is placed by the law on the citizens of the country for the correct performance of the administration of their income records.
修改：The law obliges the citizens of the country to administer their income records correctly.
原始：The avoidance of the introduction or the removal of toxins from rivers by industry leads to the improvement of the integrity of the environment and is beneficial to human health.
修改：Industries that avoid introducing or that remove toxins from rivers improve the integrity of the environment and benefit human health.
（2）寻找弱的动词，比如 “to be”
原始：The participants who are giving assistance with the formulation of policy ideas are in agreement with the researcher to offer their view.
修改：Those who assist with formulation policy ideas agree with the researcher to offer their views.
（3）寻找以 “-ization” 或者 “-tion” 结尾的名词
技术文章作者通常更喜欢强动词，强动词就是用一个单词来表示行动，如 compare, consider, indicate。弱动词需要更多的词来表示一个行动，如 make a comparison, give consideration to, give indication of
原始：Smith asks the questions as to whether conventional methods offer the best environment for execution.
修改：Smith questions whether conventional methods offer the best environment for execution.
原始：Smith makes use of examples of these various techniques to prove that innovation continues.
修改：Smith uses examples of these various techniques to prove that innovation continues.
很多作者在写论文的时候，把 indicate 和 demonstrate 作为 argue 的同义词替换，这是有问题的，他们不是完全等价的。
而 indicate 和 demonstrate 通常用来描述事实或者已经被证明无可争议
argue 还可以用来避免听起来对结果犹豫不定。比如 “may indicate”“may suggest”“may demonstrate” 都可以被 argue 加强
原始：The results may indicate that climatic change caused the extinction of the dinosaurs.
修改：We argue that climatic change caused the extinction of the dinosaurs.
避免以 “It” 和“There”开始句子
不要在每句话开头都用 “It” 和“There”。在科技论文的写作中，最好是把主语放在开头的位置，而不是放在 “it” 形成的从句中间，这样能使得文章更易读。避免使用这种以 “It” 和“There”开始的句子，比如
（1）It is known that ... （2）It is considered that ... （3）It demonstrates that ... （4）It could be said that ... （5）It follows that ...
原始：It is possible that participants between the ages of 18 and 19 responded differently than those between the ages of 20 and 21.
修改：Participants between the ages of 18 and 19 may have responded differently than participants between the ages of 20 and 21.
原始：There is a need for implementation of the policy on a large scale by the president of the association.
修改：The association president must implement the policy on a larger scale.
原始：It could happen that a decision to modify the model is made by the researcher.
修改：The research may decide to modify the model.
原始：There is a necessity for a semi-structured approach to be chosen.
修改：A semi-structured approach must be chosen.
原始：It was vital that quantitative measures would usefully supplement and extend the qualitative analysis.
修改：Quantitative measures must usefully supplement and extend the qualitative analysis.
原始：It is necessary that the best method to adopt for this investigation is determined by the committee.
修改：The committee must decide the best method to adopt for this investigation.
在写作的时候，我们经常用类似 “show”“deal with” 这种万能词，但是在一篇文章中，这样的词使用的越多，就越没有意义。如果你能选择一个意义更明确的词表示，也就是主动动词，就不要用这种万能动词。比如将 “Chen dealt with” 和“Figure 1 shows”表达成 “Chen hypothesized” 和“Figure 1 represents”意义变得更加明确
Phillip Chang proposes a mechanism explaining increased silica solubility in the presence of two small organic acids.
The results of this study challenge findings from studies about analytic concentration varying with sample location.
This study characterizes wetlands by their water chemistry and postulates that water chemistry varies with water source and wetland type.
Figure 4 depicts grain growth that occurred after the ceramic was sintered for three hours.
yield illustrate illuminate reveal employ mean suggest clarity indicate represent prove insist propose imply assert postulate consider infer state extrapolate estimate define classify invoke analyze compare hypothesize synthesize summarize disagree generalize narrate evaluate simplify measure note predict introduce report construe challenge delineate depict interpret provide acknowledge distinguish inform specify restrict determine detail sum up designate point out set forth deduce derive characterize guide maintain believe speculate present organize investigate assess determine calculate support devise construct evaluate attribute obtain assume argue reiterate discover decide
discharge overlie emanate radiate scatter exchange separate surround combine eliminate emit transmit carry bombard exert exude interact behave exchange absorb converge extend constrain force elongate contract trend plunge occur fracture continue mix slow quicken produce bond interlock fuse deteriorate migrate encompass access traverse join dominate deposit underline overlap originate isolate invade permeate evolve divide sinter reclaim restore abandon contain accrue precede influence saturate circulate forecast orient distribute allow lag terminate activate cease record form transect condense enrich invert convert alter link superimpose rotate rupture streamline appear require ascend descend collapse superpose crystallize bisect cede coalesce disperse disseminate disintegrate propel repel accelerate transfer penetrate halt curb